“A whole is that which has a beginning, middle, and end” — Aristotle

This amazingly simple and useful tool was developed by Florian Mueck. Here is the pdf template for the full structure. Florian came up with a visualization of a Greek template, which has:

  • Foundation: beginning or opening
  • Pillars: speech body
  • Roof: ending or closing
  • Drainpipe: connection of the closing of a speech with its opening.​

This structure is very easy to remember and can be applied to any communication, whether you are preparing a wedding toast or a career-making presentation. Although this was built for a speech structure, you can apply this framework for any communication to come across as structured, effective, and thorough.

[Example] Prompt: What is your favorite color?

Preview. View. Review.

Another great framework you can use for speeches, respond to questions, and in general communications is Preview-View-Review. This part structure helps you organize your thoughts in a clear way and provides a story-like framework for your communications. This concept was developed by educators to give the teacher a technique for effective learning. But, this can easily be applied in any situation.​

Preview (10–15 % of time)

  • Hook: Opening statement to grab attention
  • Positioning Statement: Benefits statement selling advantages of listening
  • Overview: Key points that support positioning statement

View (80–85% of time)

  • Point 1: Evidence/Illustration
  • Point 2: Evidence/Illustration
  • Point 3: Evidence/Illustration

​Review (5% of time)

  • Recap: Summary of a positioning statement and key points
  • Memorable Conclusion: Wrap up story or statement
  • Call to Action: Request for order/commitment

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